Fact 1: Education in Germany is mainly regulated by the government. Federal authority, however, only has a minor power to make sure the uniformity of their system while each state (Land/Bundesland) regulates its own policy for education.
Fact 2: In Germany, it is mandatory for children to study at least 9 years, for Primary schools and Secondary schools.
Fact 3: Homeschooling is not allowed in Germany in general. However, there are still exceptions for accepted homeschooling as following:
Below is our summarized map and explanation of the school system in Germany:
Nursery level/pre-school is optional (not compulsory) for children below 6 years old. There are 3 types of pre-schools in Germany: Kinderkrippe, Kindergarten, and Kita.
Primary School (Grundschule) is compulsory for all children from 6 – 9 years old from grade 1 to 4, except for Berlin and Brandenburg where Grundschule could last for 6 years: from grade 1 to grade 6. After primary school, based on their ability, students can continue at one of the different Secondary School types as following: Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasien, Gesamtschule, Regionalschule or Gemeinschaftsschule.
Besides, Kinderhort/Schulhort is a form of the after-school center, similar to Kita, but for children between 7 and 12 years old. In Kinderhort, children can have lunch, do homework and play with their peers.
Secondary School (Sekundarstufe I) is compulsory for all children. It is highly classified, based on the ability of children. Hence, there are following types of Secondary School:
Types of universities and/or equivalent institutions in Germany:
Universitäten (traditional universities) are institutions with the right to award doctorates that care for and serve the development of the sciences through research, teaching, and study.
TechnischeUniversitäten/TU (technical universities) are doctorate-granting institutions with a wide range of engineering subjects and scientific subjects, mostly supplemented by other subjects.
Fachhochschulen/Hochschulen für angewandte Wissenschaften/Hochschule für angewandte Forschung (Universities of Applied Sciences /higher education institutions of applied science) are higher education institutions that teach and research with an application-oriented focus on a scientific basis.
Technische Hochschulen (Colleges of technology) refer to institutions that focus on the natural and engineering sciences.
Musik- oder Kunstakademien (Academies for Arts and Music) provide higher education level of visual, design, performing arts, film and television, a variety of music subject and fine art, as well as the theoretical disciplines of above-mentioned subjects. Some schools only specialize in a major while others provide multiple choices for different subjects.
You can find more information on types of German universities here in this article:
Normally, one of the entrance requirements to university in Germany is Abitur Degree or equivalent. However, many non-EU students couldn’t get admitted to university because their high-school graduation certificate is not seen as equivalent to Abitur degree. Hence, it is necessary for these students to successfully finish 2 semesters at a preparatory college (Studienkolleg) before getting admitted to a German university. For more information about "Studienkolleg", don´t hesitate to read
As we all see, the school system in Germany has a significant classification of students since the secondary level and it is also believed to be more complicated than educational systems in other European countries. Students in Germany are trained to take their roles in the labor market according to their ability and willingness. Thanks to this well-organized education structure, Germany has become a leading manufacturing nation in Europe and stood in the top 4 largest economies by GDP, according to Focus Economics’s publication. It is worth for you to experience your study time in one of the best educational systems in the world.